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Thursday, 24 September 2015

Job Interview Linux Interview Questions and Answers

36. Can you give a detailed explanation on how the boot process of the Linux version you like happens?
Yes, in the beginning the boot loaders are being loaded by the BIOS then they are loading the kernel, then the file systems are mounted by the kernel so the drivers can begin installing and loading. To be more detailed the boot process happens in 4 major steps:
1)when we turn on the computer the Bios is called (that chip from the motherboard) and it starts the processor and the power on tests for verifying the devices that are connected and their availability for use. After this is done the BIOS will cross in a Specific place in the memory (RAM) and look for the booting device. The hard disk will have a boot sector which is the first sector and from here the MBR will be loaded in the RAM.
2)the booting process is performed by the boot loader (for example GRUB and LILO are common used boot loaders), this will give the user different boot options and this is what determines how the kernel is loaded.
3)the kernel handles the boot process after it is loaded and the hardware initialization begins, partitions are created by the kernel.
4)INITloads.

37. How can we describe a Stateless Linux server and what are its features?
The Linux centralized server that has no workstation state is called a Stateless Linux server. This server is being seen when a specific system’s state is wanted by the user to be in the other machines too. Practically this server is storing each machine’s prototype and each machine’s snapshots, also the home directories. To know what state fits each system we must use LDAP.

38. What daemon does the event tracking in Linux?
For tracking information about a system syslogd is used, it helps us saving the information in log files too. It is used by the Unix or Internet sockets for remote and local logging. The logged messages some field like hostname, time or program name, which are the information that the daemon is tracking. The signals that the user is giving make syslogd react, these signals are: SIGHUP- which performs a re-initialization by closing all the files that are open and re-reading the cinfiguaration file (/etc/syslog.conf by dfault)and restarting the syslog;SiGTERMsyslogd is killed;SIGINT, SISQUIT-if the debugging is not activated syslog will be killed, but if it’s activated these signals are ignored;SIGURSR1- this is a signal that is used along with –d or debug option which is switched on or off;SIGCHLD-due to waiting messages it waits for childs.

39. How can we define SELinux?
SELinux is the name for Security-enhanced Linux which, as a prototype of Linux kernel that contains utilities which are made for improved functionality of the security feature in such a way to prove to the Linux community the value of Linux controls. In order to achieve greater security for the Flask system new design are made for the architectural components based on Role-based Accsess Control, Multi-level Security and Type Enforcement.

40. Which is the recommended size for the swap space partition?
Because the use of the swap space for extending the physical memory, the quantity of memory(RAM) from the system determines the needed size of the swap space. The physical memory and the swap space can be calculated together in Linux as the total amount of memory, so when for instance we have 16 MB of memory on the motherboard of the computer and we assign 8MB for swapping the total memory used by Linux will be 24.

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