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Thursday, 24 September 2015

Most recent asked iPhone Interview Questions and Answers

51. What are KVO and KVC?
KVC: Normally instance variables are accessed through properties or accessors but KVC gives another way to access variables in form of strings. In this way your class acts like a dictionary and your property name for example “age” becomes key and value that property holds becomes value for that key. For example, you have employee class with name property.
You access property like
NSString age = emp.age;
setting property value.
emp.age = @”20?;
Now how KVC works is like this
[emp valueForKey:@"age"];
[emp setValue:@"25" forKey:@"age"];
KVO : The mechanism through which objects are notified when there is change in any of property is called KVO.
For example, person object is interested in getting notification when accountBalance property is changed in BankAccount object.To achieve this, Person Object must register as an observer of the BankAccount’s accountBalance property by sending an
addObserver:forKeyPath:options:context: message.

52. What is difference between NSNotification and delegate?
Delegate is passing message from one object to other object. It is like one to one communication while nsnotification is like passing message to multiple objects at the same time. All other objects that have subscribed to that notification or acting observers to that notification can or can’t respond to that event. Notifications are easier but you can get into trouble by using those like bad architecture. Delegates are more frequently used and are used with help of protocols.

53. What is push notification?
Imagine, you are looking for a job. You go to software company daily and ask sir “is there any job for me” and they keep on saying no.  Your time and money is wasted on each trip.(Pull Request mechanism).
So, one day owner says, if there is any suitable job for you, I will let you know. In this mechanism, your time and money is not wasted. (Push Mechanism).

53. What is Automatic Reference Counting (ARC) ?
ARC is a compiler-level feature that simplifies the process of managing the lifetimes of Objective  C objects. Instead of you having to remember when to retain or release an object, ARC evaluates the lifetime requirements of your objects and automatically inserts the appropriate method calls at compile time.

54. What is polymorphism?
This is very famous question and every interviewer asks this. Few people say polymorphism means multiple forms and they start giving example of draw function which is right to some extent but interviewer is looking for more detailed answer.
Ability of base class pointer to call function from derived class at runtime is called polymorphism.

55. Whats fast enumeration?
Fast enumeration is a language feature that allows you to enumerate over the contents of a collection. (Your code will also run faster because the internal implementation reduces
message send overhead and increases pipelining potential.)

56. What is MVC ? MVC Architecture of iPhone App.
Here are the reasons why we should use the MVC (Model View Controller)design pattern.
1. MVC is resuable: When the problems occurs, there is no need to invent a new solution, we just have to follow the pattern and adopt it as necessary.
2. MVC is expressive: By using the MVC design pattern our application becomes more expressive.

1).  Model: The model object knows about all the data that need to be displayed. It is model who is aware about all the operations that can be applied to transform that object. It only represents the data of an application. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data. Model is not aware about the presentation data and how that data will be displayed to the browser.
2). View: The view represents the presentation of the application. The view object refers to the model. It uses the query methods of the model to obtain the contents and renders it. The view is not dependent on the application logic. It remains same if there is any modification in the business logic. In other words, we can say that it is the responsibility of the of the view's to maintain the consistency in its presentation when the model changes.
3). Controller:  Whenever the user sends a request for something then it always go through the controller. The controller is responsible for intercepting the requests from view and passes it to the model for the appropriate action. After the action has been taken on the data, the controller is responsible for directing the appropriate view to the user. In  GUIs, the views and the controllers often work very closely together.

57. What are the ways to store data localy on iPhone device?
We store data localy in device through:
1. Plist.
2. NSUserDefaults.
3. SQLite.
4. CoreData.

58. Difference between COCOA, COCOA touch and objective C?
Objective C is a dynamic programming language - a bit like C++ and a bit like Java.
Cocoa is the application framework for Mac OS X. Cocoa Touch is the application framework for iPhone and iPod Touch - very similar to Cocoa.
Cocoa is commonly referred to as the combination of the Foundation and AppKit frameworks, while Cocoa Touch is the combination of the Foundation and UIKit frameworks. Cocoa and Cocoa Touch sit on top of other collections of frameworks to create the API stacks. The other layers are Media, Core Services and Core OS. The main difference between Cocoa and Cocoa touch is that the UI classes and APIs aren't the same as Mac OS X, so instead of NSTextField, you have UITextField. Many of the classes share the same functionality and can be ported quite easily by simply changing the class name, though most will require some more changes, but usually nothing too heavy. There are also some differences between the Foundation frameworks in Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, most commonly missing classes, eg, Cocoa has NSHost and Cocoa Touch doesn't.

59. Difference between shallow copy and deep copy?
Shallow copy is also known as address copy. In this process you only copy address not actual data while in deep copy you copy data. Suppose there are two objects A and B. A is pointing to a different array while B is pointing to different array. Now what I will do is following to do shallow copy.?Char *A = {‘a’,’b’,’c’};?Char *B = {‘x’,’y’,’z’};?B = A;?Now B is pointing is at same location where A pointer is pointing.Both A and B in this case sharing same data. if change is made both will get altered value of data.Advantage is that coping process is very fast and is independent of size of array.while in deep copy data is also copied. This process is slow but Both A and B have their own copies and changes made to any copy, other will copy will not be affected.

60. What is advantage of categories? What is difference between implementing a category and inheritance?
You can add method to existing class even to that class whose source is not available to you. You can extend functionality of a class without subclassing. You can split implementation in multiple classes. While in Inheritance you subclass from parent class and extend its functionality.

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